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INTRODUCTION:

This page documents research on the Torah.  This research includes the Torah given on Mount Sinai, the Torah given to Adam, Noah and Abraham and the Oral Torah used by practicers of Orthodox Judaism.

 

"The most significant result of these developments on the "Law" of the Torah was the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew word Torah into Greek as nomos meaning law and not didaskalia.  Didaskalia means teaching, instruction, education, doctrine, what is taught.  It means precisely what the Hebrew word Torah really means, as we will discuss below.  This mistranslation of Torah into Greek as nomos set the stage for the church fathers’ full-fledged proclamation of the Torah as "the Law.""

Christianity’s view of “the Law” has been influenced by the struggle to define its own identity apart from its Hebraic roots.  That struggle was fought with powerful figures like Marcion (A.D. 130), who denied the validity of the Hebrew Bible for Christian faith and practice.  He loved Rav Sha’ul, according to special interpretation of him, but Marcion hated the Bible.  Even though the Church called Marcion a heretic, his view of “the Law” was largely accepted without consideration of the Jewish understanding of the Torah.  In contrast to Marcion, both Y’shua and Rav Sha’ul highly valued the Torah as we shall see.

Martin Luther also had a negative impact on Christian theologies by misunderstanding Rav Sha’ul and developing the theology of justification by faith.  According to Luther, faith negated Torah. Torah was bad, imperfect, and transient.  Judaism, as a religious system, was bad and all Jews would burn in hell unless they accepted Y’shua as their personal savior.  Luther was as rabid an anti-Semite as was Marcion and his anti-Semitism is clearly reflected in his theology.

Unfortunately, the influence of Marcion, Luther, and others of their ilk and kind remain with us until today.  As a result many unwary believers have been, and continue to be, taught erroneously.

Based upon this history we can understand why we are taught today that the Torah is “the Law” of G-d.  This is why churchmen taught that all the commandments of “the Law” must be fulfilled in every respect in order for one to have salvation.  This is why churchmen taught that if one attempted to keep any of the “laws” one had to keep them all.  This is why churchmen taught that YHVH had to come up with a better plan of salvation.  This is why churchmen substituted the two commandments of Y'shua to love G-d and to love your neighbor for the whole of the Torah.

Somehow churchmen did not realize that these two commandments are actually contained within the Torah!  (Devarim (Deut) 6:5, “You shall love YHVH your G-d with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might.”  Vayikra (Lev.) 19:18, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself; I am YHVH.”)  So, according to churchmen’s own theology, if they attempt to keep these two commandments of Y’shua, they must keep all the commandments in order to be saved.

DEFINITIONS:

Yarah and Torah - In Hebrew words are derived from root words and nouns from verbs.  The root word for the noun Torah is the verb yarah.  Yarah means to “throw, cast, shoot, point out, show, direct, teach, instruct.”  It connotes shooting or throwing something at a target, like guiding an arrow to a bull’s-eye or guiding sheep toward the sheepfold.  The meaning of yarah is clear and does not in any way embrace or imply any of the aspects of the law terms we have defined above.

Thus Torah, derived from yarah, is a noun which means teaching or instruction that is true and straight, as if the words of Torah are shot in a direct path like an arrow, with power and force for the best in life.  Torah is the divine theme for all people who love G-d. Torah means G-d's will including but going over and beyond the ink dried upon the scrolls of holy writ.  So Torah cannot mean or connote “law” in any way, shape or form unless it is distorted by those with a bias in favor of the law model.

Law/Torah - (8451) - or torah {to-raw'}; from 'yarah' (3384); a precept or statute, especially the Decalogue or Pentateuch:--law.; (3384) - or (2 Chr. 26:15) yara; {yaw-raw'}; a primitive root; properly, to flow as water (i.e. to rain); transitively, to lay or throw (especially an arrow, i.e. to shoot); figuratively, to point out (as if by aiming the finger), to teach:--(+) archer, cast, direct, inform, instruct, lay, shew, shoot, teach(-er,-ing), through.

Torah/Law - Loving Instructions Found In The Five Books Of Moses, Or Instructions Of Moses From YHWH; Mistranslated As "Law"; (H8451) - or torah {to-raw'}; from 'yarah' (3384); a precept or statute, especially the Decalogue or Pentateuch:--law.; (3384) - or (2 Chr. 26:15) yara; {yaw-raw'}; a primitive root; properly, to flow as water (i.e. to rain); transitively, to lay or throw (especially an arrow, i.e. to shoot); figuratively, to point out (as if by aiming the finger), to teach:--(+) archer, cast, direct, inform, instruct, lay, shew, shoot, teach(-er,-ing), through.

torah - (teaching)

Paleo Torah

INTERPRETATION:

In Jewish tradition, there are presently four primary methods of interpretation:

P'shat: Simple, literal, historical meaning.

Remez: Allegory, hints.

Drash: Moral, homiletical, personal.

Sod: Secret, mystical.

"Such exegesis is known by the acronym, "PaRDeS", (Garden) and began with Moses ben Shem Tov of Leon around 1290 (who wrote the mystical book, the Zohar).  Hillel, a contemporary of Herod, is said to have used seven principles of interpretation, which Judaism expanded to thirteen, then thirty two, and now four. See The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life And Thought, 1996, Carta, Pardes, pg 343; The Encyclopedia of Jewish Symbols, 1992, Frankel & Teutsch, Aronson Inc., Northvale, NJ, Pardes and Kabbalah, pp 126; 86-87; and, Principles of Rabbinic Interpretation, David Bivin, www.jerusalemperspective.com.

Redeemed Israel by Batya Ruth Wootten 2006, p79-80.

THE "ORAL" TORAH - THE TALMUD:

"If one of the heavy folios that constitue the Talmud collection be opened at random, the eye will be met by a text in the square Hebrew characters, which framed on the right and left by narrow columns, and above and below by wide bands, of finer text, printed in the Rabbinic characters.  The frame is the work of French commentators of the middle ages; the portion framed is the TALMUD.  The Talmud, in turn, is composed of two distinct parts, the MISHNA and the GEMARA; the former the text, the latter the commentary upon that text.  An analysis of the Talmud must therefore begin with that of the Mishna."

THE TALMUD  by Arsene Darmesteter,  1897, pg.10 a-b.

Mishnah 200 CE

In its final form, the Mishnah consists of six Orders:

Zera'im/Zeraim - (seeds)

agricultural laws, has eleven tractates, the first of which (Berakoth) deals with Prayer

Mo'ed/Moed (appointed - times)

laws concerning the festivals and fasts, has twelve tractates

Nashim - (women)

seven tractates dealing with laws relating to woman and family life

Nezikin - (damages)

the tractates on civil and criminal jurisprudence (including the Pirke Aboth)

Kodashim/Kodoshim/Kodshim - (holy things)

eleven tractates of laws in connection with the Sanctuary and food laws

Taharot/Toharoth - (purities)

twelve tractates on the laws of clean and unclean

— altogether sixty-three tractates. Each tractate (massechta) is again subdivided into perakim (chapters), of which the total number is five hundred and twenty-three.

"This, then brings us to the Gemara, the perpetual commentary following the Mishna in all its divisions and subdivisions.  It has come down to us in two different forms or redactions.  The one is the work of the Palestinian schools, and was drawn up at Tiberias in about 380; the other emanates from the Babylonian academies at Sora, Nehardea, and Pumbeditha, and was reduced to writing by R. Ashi and his disciple Rabina, receiving its final shape from R. Jose' in about 500.  The Babylonian gemara, improperly called the Babylonian Talmud, is clearer and more complete than the Palestinian Gemara, still more inaccurately called the Jerusalem Talmud.  The former, therefore, was adopted by the synagogue, and the other, of higher importance to ciritcal research by reason of its greater antiquity, was neglected by the Rabbis and the copyists of the middle ages, and has reached us in a much damaged condition and not without having lost many a page in it's journey across the centuries."

THE TALMUD  by Arsene Darmesteter,  1897, pg.13 a.

Gemara 350-500 CE

A collection of legal and ethical discussions of the rabbis of the third through the fifth centuries, edited about 500 CE; together with the Mishnah forms the Talmud.

  • Palestinian Gemara (a.k.a. Jerusalem Talmud) 350-380 CE
  • Babylonian Gemara (a.k.a. Babylonian Talmud) 500 CE

There exists two main trains of thought in the Gemara:

  • Halachah - Rule, Norm
  • Haggadah - Legend, Saga

 

Midrash 200-900 CE

Takanot = rabbinical "enactment"

Tradition of the elders vs. commandment of YHWH (Matthew 15:2-3)

Five Fundamental Principles of Phaiseeism

Principle # 1: Two Torahs. The written Torah and the Oral Torah

Principle # 2: Authority of the Rabbis. The Rabbis have absolute authority to interpret Scripture.

(Deuteronomy 30:12) "It is not in heaven"

Principle # 3: (Ir)Rational Interpretation.

Midrashic Interpretation.  Homaletical or Hermeneutical Interpretation.

Ignores language

Ignores contrext

Principle # 4: Sanctified Tradition - minhag - custom

Principle # 5: Commandments of Men - Takanot - "enactments"

Keeping Judaism Alive Past and Present through Takanot and Tshuvot  (mirrored PDF file)

UNDERSTANDING THE ORAL LAW  (WWW.IAHUSHUA.COM)  (2013/0203)

ORAL TORAH NOTES

According to this AISH.com article (Av: Disaster and Consolation), the Talmud states that the Messiah will be born on the 9th of Av!

Way #15 Oral Instructions For Living  (WWW.AISH.COM)

#39 The Talmud  (WWW.AISH.COM)

#39 The Talmud  (WWW.AISH.COM)  (01/27/11)  (mirrored page)

Excerpt from the Babylonian Talmud - Eruvin 21b

My Son! Be careful concerning Rabbinical decrees even more than the Torah....  The Torah contains prohibitions....  But anyone who violates a Rabbinical decree is worthy of death.

Excerpt from the Babylonian Talmud - Mas. Baba Metzia 59b

Said R. Jeremiah: [Because] the Torah had already been given at Mount Sinai; we pay no attention to a Heavenly Voice, because Thou hast long since written in the Torah at Mount Sinai, "after the majority must one incline." 5

Excerpt from the Maimonides - pp 27-28

"*** Maimonides emphasizes that a prophet who prophesises something contrary to the Oral Law, Even if Scripture agrees witht the prophet, that prophet must be executed.

Sifrei Divrei Rav (on Deuteronomy) 154 (11)

Even if they tell you that right is left or left is right, you must listen to them.

Matot-Masay 5772  (WWW.AISH.COM)  (2012/0726)

Rather troublesome considering 100,000 people meeting to discuss a dogma of racism.

MISNAH NOTES:

Mishnah  (WWW.JEWISHENCYCLOPEDIA.COM)

Mishnah  (WWW.MYJEWISHLEARNING.COM)

Mishnah  (HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG)

Talmud/Mishna/Gemara  (WWW.JEWISHVIRTUALLIBRARY.ORG)

Torah on the net  (WWW.AISHDAS.ORG)  (09/04/10)

Mechon Mamre  (WWW.MECHON-MAMRE.ORG)  (09/04/10)

The Mishnah  (WWW.EMISHNAH.COM)  (09/04/10)

TALMUD NOTES:

"Jews may lie to non-Jews; Jews may use lies to circumvent a Gentile." - Baba Kamma 113a

"Jews may swear falsely by use of subterfuge wording." - Schabouth Hag. 6b.

"Jews must always try to deceive Christians." - Zohar 1160a

"Who took an oath in the presence of goys, the robbers and the custom-house officer, is not responsible." - Tosefta Szebnot, 11.

"One should and must make false oath, when the goyin ask if our books contain anything against them. Then we are bound to state on oath that there is nothing like that." - Utszabot. The Book of Jore Dia, 17.

Jewish Talmudic Quotes – Facts Are Facts  (2015/0923)

TALMUD REFERENCES:

Talmud  (JEWISHENCYCLOPEDIA.COM)  (01/17/10)

Talmud  (HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG)  (2014/1117)

Come and Hear  (HTTP://COME-AND-HEAR.COM)  (06/26/12)

The Truth About the Talmud  (REVISIONISTHISTORY.ORG)  (01/07/12)

TALMUD: The Satanic Book....Exposed  (HTTP://ABLE2KNOW.ORG)  (06/16/12)

Christians Should Reassess Support for Israel Zionism, Anti Semitism and American Democracy  (HTTP://RENSE.COM)  (2012/0903)

Jewish Racism towards Non-Jews as expressed in the Talmud  (WWW.OPPOSINGDIGITS.COM)  (2012/0903)

Talmud Perspective  (WWW.SWEETLIBERTY.ORG)  (2012/0203)

TALMUD UNMASKED:

The Talmud Unmasked  (HTTP://BISERICASECRETA.FILES.WORDPRESS.COM)  (2012/0203)

The Talmud Unmasked  (HTTP://WWW.TALMUDUNMASKED.COM)  (2012/0203)

Justinas Pranaitis  (HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG)  (2012/0203)

The Talmud on Christians  (WWW.IAHUSHUA.COM)  (2012/0203)

The Talmud Unmasked  (WWW.BIBLEBELIEVERS.ORG.AU)  (2012/0203)

Debunking Pranaitis  (WWW.SULLIVAN-COUNTY.COM)  (2012/0203)

This does NOT seem like debunking to me.  The author starts out with the name calling and continues throughout his assault.  However, one of the fundamental claims made in the opening is that "you can go to the library and find the Holy Bible or the Koran or a list of other religious teachings, but no talmud."  While the debunking author dodges this exclusion, this seems to be an accurate statement as I have had a difficult time finding a copy of the Talmud in any public library I've gone to in America.

TALMUD TRANSLATIONS:

The Babylonian Talmud

The Babylonian Talmud  (WWW.SACRED-TEXTS.COM)  (02/22/12)

Book 1: Tract Sabbath  (WWW.SACRED-TEXTS.COM)  (02/22/12)

Book 2: Tracts Erubin, Shekalim, Rosh Hashana  (WWW.SACRED-TEXTS.COM)  (02/22/12)

Book 3: Tracts Pesachim (Passover), Yomah (Day of Atonement) and Hagiga (Holocaust)  (WWW.SACRED-TEXTS.COM)  (02/22/12)

 

NEW EDITION OF THE BABYLONIAN TALMUD  (WWW.BRESLOV.COM)  (2012/0826)

 

The Babylonian Talmud (edited by Rabbi Dr. Isidore Epstein)  (WWW.COME-AND-HEAR.COM)  (04/01/12)

SCRIPTURE REFERENCES:

  4 'Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.'  (KJV)

This is a reference to a Torah in existance before the Torah that was given on Mount Sinai (Exodus 20:1-17).

LORD/YHWH title of majesty and kingship; (3068) - from 'hayah' (1961); (the) self-Existent or Eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God:--Jehovah, the Lord. Compare 'Yahh' (3050), 'Yhovih' (3069).; (1961) - a primitive root (compare 'hava'' (1933)); to exist, i.e. be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary):--beacon, X altogether, be(-come), accomplished, committed, like), break, cause, come (to pass), do, faint, fall, + follow, happen, X have, last, pertain, quit (one-)self, require, X use.; (1933) - or havah {haw-vaw'}; a primitive root (compare ''avah' (183), 'hayah' (1961)) supposed to mean properly, to breathe; to be (in the sense of existence):--be, X have.; (3050) - contraction for 'Yhovah' (3068), and meaning the same; Jah, the sacred name:--Jah, the Lord, most vehement. Compare names in "-iah," "- jah."; (3069) - a variation of 'Yhovah' (3068) (used after ''Adonay' (136), and pronounced by Jews as ''elohiym' (430), in order to prevent the repetition of the same sound, since they elsewhere pronounce 'Yhovah' (3068) as ''Adonay' (136)):--God.

Moses/Mosheh - drawn out; (4872) - from 'mashah' (4871); drawing out (of the water), i.e. rescued; Mosheh, the Israelite lawgiver; (4871) - a primitive root; to pull out (literally or figuratively):--draw(out).

law/Torah - (G3551) - nomos (Greek) from a primary nemo (to parcel out, especially food or grazing to animals); law (through the idea of prescriptive usage), genitive case (regulation), specially, (of Moses (including the volume); also of the Gospel), or figuratively (a principle):--law.

  2 'Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you. '  (KJV)

32 'What thing soever I command you, observe to do it: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it.'  (KJV)

18 'Gather the people together, men and women, and children, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law:'  (KJV)

  6 'Be ye therefore very courageous to keep and to do all that is written in the book of the law of Moses, that ye turn not aside therefrom to the right hand or to the left;'  (KJV)

Nothing is said about any oral or spoken law being applicable.

13 'Yet the LORD testified against Israel, and against Judah, by all the prophets, and by all the seers, saying, Turn ye from your evil ways, and keep my commandments and my statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you by my servants the prophets.'  (KJV)

What YHWH said to the prophets is also considered Torah.

  6 'Add thou not unto his words, lest he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar.'  (KJV)

18 'For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book:'  (KJV)

19 'And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.'  (KJV)

REFERENCE LINKS:

CHAPTERS ON JEWISH LITERATURE by ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A.  (WWW.UTOM.ORG)  (02/17/12)

HEBRAIC LITERATURE TRANSLATIONS FROM THE TALMUD MIDRASHIM AND KABBALA  (WWW.UTOM.ORG)  (02/17/12)

Yeshua And The Talmud  (HTTP://YASHANET.COM)  (04/15/10)

The Torah  (WWW.YAHWEH.ORG)  (04/15/10)

The Torah is Not the Law  (WWW.FOGWHISTLE.CA)  (07/13/11)

Why Christians Should Study Torah and Talmud  (WWW.BRIDGESFORPEACE.COM)  (01/21/12)

Introduction to Torah Beginners Lessons in Scriptural Interpretative Methods  (WWW.BNAIAVRAHAM.NET)  (01/27/12)

Paleo Torah Picture  (WWW.FACEBOOK.COM)  (01/24/12)