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The purpose of this page is to give me a place to collect notes on the various pagan dieties referenced in the Scriptures.

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Adrammelech/Adrammelek - (H152) - from ''adar' (142) and 'melek' (4428); splendor of (the) king; Adrammelek, the name of an Assyrian idol, also of a son of Sennacherib:--Adrammelech.; (142) - a primitive root; to expand, i.e. be great or (figuratively) magnificent:--(become) glorious, honourable.; (4428) - from 'malak' (4427); a king:--king, royal.

Anammelech/Anammelek - (H6048) - of foreign origin; Anammelek, an Assyrian deity:--Anammelech.



Ackerman, Susan. "Asherah/Asherim: Bible." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 1 March 2009. Jewish Women's Archive.  (HTTP://JWA.ORG)

The Pre-biblical Origins of the Baals and the Asherim as Egyptian Pillar Gods and Goddesses Fused to Semitic Deities in Late Bronze Age Times (1560-1200 BCE)  (WWW.BIBLEORIGINS.NET)



Groves and Asherim - 22 October 2008 — art

"The King James Version consistently translates the Hebrew term אשרה as "grove" and the plural as "groves" (Ex 34.14; Deut 7.5, 12.3; Judg 3.7; 1Kings 14.15, 14.23, 18.19; 2Kings 17.10, 18.4, 23.14; 2Chron 17.6, 19.3, 24.18, 31.1, 33.3, 33.19, 34.3-4, 34.7; Is 17.8, 27.9; Jer 17.2, Mic 5.14). For instance, in 2 Chron 34.3 it reads, "in the twelfth year he began to purge Judah and Jerusalem from the high places, and the groves, and the carved images, and the molten images."

This raises the question: why would Josiah purge the ‘groves’ from Judah and Jerusalem and why are ‘groves’ listed among worship places of ANE gods and idols?

Theologians and Biblical scholars made their best guesses for centuries. Then, in 1929, excavations started when Ugarit was rediscovered and many ancient Northwest Semitic texts were uncovered. It was then discovered that אשרה should not be translated as ‘groves’ but as ‘Asherah,’ which was the Hebrew term used to refer to ʼAṯirat, the mother goddess in Ugaritic and other NW Semitic literature (most notably Akkadian: Ashratum and Hittite: Aserdu(s)).

The implications of this discovery were far reaching, not only for translating אשרה, but also for understanding the type of religious text the OT actually is. One of the implications is that modern versions of the Bible now translate אשרה not as ‘groves’ but as ‘Asherah’ or ‘Asherim,’ noting the impact that these Ugaritic texts have not only on our understanding of the OT as a text, but also how to translate certain words that were near meaningless until this discovery.

Why is this interesting? Well, a number of reasons, but I’ll cut to the chase of what I’m getting at.

The discovery of these Ugaritic texts made a determinative contribution to our interpretation of the Bible. Pastors, theologians, and scholars today do not understand אשרה as meaning ‘grove,’ but as meaning ‘Asherah.’ And they didn’t get to that point by "letting Scripture interpret Scripture" or by focusing on the "essential" divinity of Scripture. They got to that point by the determinative use of extra-biblical sources for interpreting Scripture.

The first time אשרה is mentioned in Scripture (Ex 34.14), the Reformation Study Bible has this in the footnotes:

Asherim. These were the cultic objects that represented the Canaanite goddess of fertility (Asherah), sacred trees or poles that stood beside Baal altars (cf. Judg. 6:25). Israel must not be compromised by adopting the pagan practices of peoples in the land (145).

Clearly the Reformation Study Bible has, according to recent developments in the Reformed faith, stepped well outside of the Westminster Standards by making extra-biblical literature determinative in interpreting the Bible. It is clearly not following the principle of "Scripture interpreting Scripture."

But that doesn’t come up when pastors or authors of Reformed study Bibles mention Asherah, does it? You don’t hear the argument, "God wouldn’t have let centuries of believers not understand his word only to have modern biblical scholarship find the true meaning!" You don’t hear the argument, "We should only let Scripture interpret Scripture in order to be faithful to the Confession."

You only find acceptance in Reformed study Bibles, from Reformed pulpits, and from Reformed scholars as if this one time they get a pass from using the ‘Scripture interprets Scripture’ rule…but no one else does when the issue arises in other areas.

I find that very interesting."

Ashima/Ashima - (H807) - of foreign origin; Ashima, a deity of Hamath:--Ashima.

Ashtaroth/Ashtaroth - (6252) - or bAshtaroth {ash-taw-roth'}; plural of '`ashtrah' (6251); Ashtaroth, the name of a Sidonian deity, and of a place East of the Jordan:--Asharoth, Astaroth. See also 'Beyth `Ashtarowth' (1045), '`Ashtoreth' (6253), '`Ashtroth Qarnayim' (6255).; (6251) - probably from '`ashar' (6238); increase:--flock.

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Baal/Ba'al - master, possessor; a Phoenician deity, (H1168) - (plural) Baalim; plural of 'bamah' (1116); heights; or (fully) Bamowth Bahal {baw-moth' bah'-al}; from the same and 'Ba`al' (1168); heights of Baal; Bamoth or Bamoth-Baal, a place East of the Jordan:


Baalpeor/Baal of Peor/Ba'al Pe'or

"Baal Peor is a Moabite god, which service included sexual acts. Numb 25 reports that Israel joined in the worship of Baal Peor, which results in a mass execution of 24,000."

"The name Baal Peor consists of two parts: Firstly the word Baal meaning owner, husband. The second segment is the name of a mountain in Moab: Peor. This name comes from (pa'ar 1794) meaning open wide. The occurrences of the verb indicate adjunction with strong passion or feeling, usually not very positive (Job 16:10, Isa 5:14), and describe the wide opening of the mouth, hence alluding to other body cavities."

"Hosea remarks on the Baal Peor event in Hos 9:10, and it is clear that the Israelites defiled themselves there with abundant fornication and sexual perversion. All leading translators steer timidly clear from this name, which basically comes down to Lord Spread'em, or Lord Hole."


Beth-baal-peor  (WWW.BIBLEATLAS.ORG)  (2010/0416)

Baal-peor - Meaning, origin and etymology of the name  (WWW.ABARIM-PUBLICATIONS.COM)  (2010/0416)

Baal-peor  (WWW.JEWISHENCYCLOPEDIA.COM)  (2010/0416)


Bel/Bĕl - (H1078) - by contraction for 'Ba`al' (1168); Bel, the Baal of the Babylonians:-- Bel.; (1168) - the same as 'ba`al' (1167); Baal, a Phoenician deity:--Baal, (plural) Baalim.; (H1167) - from 'ba`al' (1166); a master; hence, a husband, or (figuratively) owner (often used with another noun in modifications of this latter sense):--+ archer, + babbler, + bird, captain, chief man, + confederate, + have to do, + dreamer, those to whom it is due, + furious, those that are given to it, great, + hairy, he that hath it, have, + horseman, husband, lord, man, + married, master, person, + sworn, they of.; (H1166) - a primitive root; to be master; hence, (as denominative from 'ba`al' (1167)) to marry:--have dominion (over), be husband, marry(-ried, X wife).

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Babylonian fish god.

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Merodach/Merodak - (H4781) - of foreign derivation; Merodak, a Babylonian idol:--Merodach. Compare 'Mro'dak Bal'adan' (4757).

Jeremiah 50



Merodach-Baladan II  (WWW.BRITANNICA.COM)



Mitra -(Proto-Indo-Iranian, nominative *Mitras) was an important Indo-Iranian divinity. Following the prehistoric cultural split of Indo-Aryan and Iranian cultures, names descended from *mitra were used for the following religious entities:


Mitras Statue



Malcham  (2016/0409)

Moloch / Molech / Milcom / Malcham  (2016/0409)

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Nergal - (H5370) - of foreign origin; Nergal, a Cuthite deity:--Nergal.

Nibhaz/Nibhaz - (H5026) - of foreign origin; Nibchaz, a deity of the Avites:--Nibhaz.

Nebo/Nebo - height; (H5015) - probably of foreign derivation; Nebo, the name of a Babylonian deity, also of a mountain in Moab, and of a place in Palestine:--Nebo.

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Sin - the moon god


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Tartak/Tartaq - (H8662) - of foreign derivation; Tartak, a deity of the Avvites:--Tartak.

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The Awakening

Awakening statue (ca. 1980) at its new location at National Harbor in Prince Georges County Maryland

The Awakening

The Awakening

The Awakening

The Awakening



Mark of the Beast and Paganism  (WWW.MARKBEAST.ORG)  (2011/1202)

The Idols Of America  (HTTP://AOREPORT.COM)  (2013/0630)