Today's Date: 

INDEX:

INTRODUCTION:

The non-Hebrew calendar has undergone changes since the first one was introduced.

One of the most noteworthy being the switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in October of 1582.

JULIAN/GREGORIAN REFERENCE LINKS:

The Change from the Julian to the Gregorian Calendar  (WWW.SEARCHFORANCESTORS.COM)  (12/21/10)

Oct. 8, 1582: Nothing Happens ... in Catholic Lands  (WWW.WIRED.COM)  (12/21/10)

Oct. 4-15, 1582  (HTTP://STEPHENSLIGHTHOUSE.COM)  (12/21/10)

What Happened to the Calendar in October 1582?  (WWW.WISEGEEK.COM)  (12/21/10)

Gregorian calendar  (HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG)  (12/21/10)

COMPARISON OF THE SACRED AND JEWISH CALENDAR:

The months of the Jewish calendar are referred to mostly by number in the Bible, but were also given names almost identical to the names for the Babylonian months.

People who practice Judaism use two kinds of calendars:

Civil Calendar - official calendar of kings, childbirth, and contracts.

Sacred Calendar - from which festivals were computed.

 

MONTH OF
SACRED YEAR
MONTH OF
JEWISH
CIVIL YEAR
JEWISH
NAMES OF
MONTHS
CORRESPONDS
WITH
NO. OF
DAYS
CONCORDANCE REFERENCE
1 7 Nisan/Nissan Mar. - Apr. 30 Nisan/Nisan - beginning; (5212) - probably of foreign origin; Nisan, the first month of the Jewish sacred year:--Nisan.
2 8 Iyar/Iyar Apr. - May 29  
3 9 Sivan/Sivan May - June 30 Sivan/Siwan - Third month of the Jewish and Babylonian year.; (5510) - probably of Persian origin; Sivan, the third Heb. month:--Sivan.
4 10 Tammuz/Tamuz June - July 29  
5 11 Ab/Av July - Aug. 30  
6 12 Elul/Elul Aug. - Sept. 29 Elul/Elul - (H435) - probably of foreign derivation; Elul, the sixth Jewish month:--Elul.
7 1 Tishri/Tishrei Sept. - Oct. 30  
8 2 Heshvan/Cheshvan Oct. - Nov. 29 or 30  
9 3 Chislev/Kislev Nov. - Dec. 29 or 30 Chisleu/Kislĕw - ninth month of the Hebrew year; (3691) - probably of foreign origin; Kisleu, the 9th Heb. month:--Chisleu.
10 4 Tebeth/Tevet Dec. - Jan. 29 Tebeth/Tbĕth - the name of the Hebrew tenth month (2887) - probably of foreign derivation; Tebeth, the tenth Heb. month:--Tebeth.
11 5 Shebat/Shevat Jan. - Feb. 30  
12 6 Adar/Adar I Feb. - Mar. 29 or 30 Adar/Adar - dark or cloudy; the 12th month of the Hebrew year; (143) - probably of foreign derivation; perhaps meaning fire; Adar, the ''abdan' (12)th Hebrew month:--Adar.
? ? (Adar II)   29 Adar/Adar - dark or cloudy; the 12th month of the Hebrew year; (143) - probably of foreign derivation; perhaps meaning fire; Adar, the ''abdan' (12)th Hebrew month:--Adar.

 

Comparison of the Sacred and Jewish Calendar Links

Jewish Calendar (Judaism 101)  (WWW.JEWFAQ.ORG)  (12/09/09)

The Hebrew Calendar  (HTTP://ENDTIMEPILGRIM.ORG)  (07/12/10)

The Hebrew Calendar  (HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG)  (07/12/10)

The Hebrew (Jewish) Calendar  (WWW.AKHLAH.COM)  (07/12/10)

The Jewish Calendar  (WWW.JEWISHVIRTUALLIBRARY.ORG)  (07/12/10)

The Jewish Calendar  (WWW.MECHON-MAMRE.ORG)  (07/12/10)

Months of the Jewish Calendar  (WWW.ANGELFIRE.COM)  (07/12/10)

Names of the Months of the Jewish Calendar  (HTTP://ANCIENTHISTORY.ABOUT.COM)  (07/12/10)

Michael Rood's Biblical Hebrew Calendar  (HTTP://AROODAWAKENING.TV)  (02/14/12)

Jewish Calendar - Hebrew Calendar  (WWW.ANGELFIRE.COM)  (08/21/11)

Hebrew Day and Month Names  (WWW.YASHANET.COM)  (08/29/11)

Nissan: Blossoms of Redemption  (WWW.AISH.COM)  (03/20/12)

BIBLICAL TIME AND CALENDAR SCRIPTURE REFERENCES:

Genesis 1:3-5

Night defined

  3 'And God said, Let there be light 216: and there was light 216.'

  4 'And God saw the light 216, that it was good: and God divided the light 216 from the darkness 2822.'

  5 'And God called the light 216 Day 3117, and the darkness 2822 he called Night 3915.  And the evening 6153 and the morning 1242 were the first day 3117.'

The 1st Day of Creation

215 - 'owr; ore - a primitive root; to be luminouos, glorious, kindle, light, set on fire, shine

216 - 'owr; ore - from "owr' (215); illumination or luminary, bright, clear, light, morning, sun.

1239 - baqar; baw-kar - a primitive root; properly, to plough, or (generally) break forth, i.e. (figuratively) to inspect, admire, care for, consider:--(make) inquire (-ry), (make) search, seek out.

1242 - boqer; bo'-ker - from 'baqar' (1239); properly, dawn (as the break of day); generally, morning:--(+) day, early, morning, morrow.

2821 - chashak; khaw-shak' - a primitive root; to be dark (as withholding light); transitively, to darken;--be black, be (make) dark, darken, cause darkeness, be dim, hide.

2822 - choshek; kho-shek' - from 'chashak' (2821); the dark; hence darkness; figuratively, misery, destruction, death, ignorance, sorrow, wickedness:--dark(-ness), night, obscurity.

3117 - yowm; yome - from an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literal (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figurative (a space of time defined by an associated term),...

3883 - luwl; lool - from an unused root meaning to fold back; a spiral step:--winding stair. Compare 'lula'ah' (3924).

3915 - layil; lah'-yil - or (Isa. 21:11) leyl {lale}; also laylah {lah'- yel-aw}; from the same as 'luwl' (3883); properly, a twist (away of the light), i.e. night; figuratively, adversity:--((mid-))night (season).

3924 - lula'ah; loo-law-aw' - from the same as 'luwl' (3883); a loop:--loop.

6150 - 'arab; aw-rab' - a primitive root (identical with '`arab' (6148) through the idea of covering with a texture); to grow dusky at sundown:--be darkened, (toward) evening.

6153 - 'ereb; eh'-reb - from '`arab' (6150); dusk:--+ day, even(-ing, tide), night.

Conclusion:

Since all the descriptions related to light and morning seem to point to the sun shining AND the descriptions related to night refer to periods of darkness, including transitions and dimming, I would conclude that light and morning mean from sunrise to sunset and NIGHT refers to all other times including dusk and twilight hours. If the sun is not above the horizon, it is night or evening.

14 'And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:'

The beginning of the 4th Day of Creation

15 'And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.'

16 'And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.'

17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, '

18 'And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.'

19 'And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.'

The 4th Day of Creation

Genesis 8:13

new year

13 "And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry."  (KJV)

How was Noah able to determine the beginning of the year without a barley harvest?

Does this verse disprove the abib barley method for determining the beginning of the year?

  9 'Then he had another dream, and he told it to his brothers. "Listen," he said, "I had another dream, and this time the sun and moon and eleven stars were bowing down to me."'

Exodus 12:2

1st Moon (Month) of the year

  2 'This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. '  (KJV)

This is YHWH speaking.

This is said right before the description of Passover.

The significant difference is that the word 'IS' has been replaced by the words 'SHALL BE' implying that this is a new calendar.  By using the word 'IS', YHWH was simply resyncing the Hebrews to HIS original calendar that they had lost while captive in Egypt.  People practicing Judaism believe this was a new calendar and that they were allowed to keep their old Egyptian calendar as a civic calendar for selling, buying and other ordinary affairs.

31 "And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled."  (KJV)

  3 "And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten."  (KJV)

  4 "This day came ye out in the month Abib."  (KJV)

This is Moses/Mosheh speaking.

Scripture describes this month/moon as Abib and NOT Nisan (meaning "their flight").  People practicing Judaism accepted this adjective during their Babylonian captivity.

15 "Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)"  (KJV)

Exodus 23:16

end of the year

16 'And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of thy labours, which thou hast sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field.'  (KJV)

The end of the year.

18 "The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt."  (KJV)

22 'And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year's end.'  (KJV)

This verse indicates that the seventh moon is at the end or turn of the year.

Exodus 12:18

The day begins in the evening.

18 'In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.'  (KJV)

It starts and stops in the evening.  This seems to indicate that the evening is the start of the day.

14 "And if thou offer a meat offering of thy firstfruits unto the LORD, thou shalt offer for the meat offering of thy firstfruits green ears of corn dried by the fire, even corn beaten out of full ears."  (KJV)

24 'And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall be unclean until the even.'  (KJV)

25 'And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.'  (KJV)

27 'And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even.'  (KJV)

28 'And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto you.'  (KJV)

31 'These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even.'  (KJV)

32 'And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherein any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed.'  (KJV)

39 'AAnd if any beast, of which ye may eat, die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even.'  (KJV)

40 'And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.'  (KJV)

27 'Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.'

28 'And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before the LORD your God.'

29 'For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people.'

30 'And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people.'

31 'Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.'

32 'It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even 6153 unto even 6153, shall ye celebrate your sabbath.'

Conclusion:

Here YHWH describes the Day of Atonement as being observed from evening to evening.  This indicates that the day begins in the evening (or at sundown according to Genesis 1:3-5)

10 'Also at your times of rejoicing - your appointed feasts and New Moon festivals - you are to sound the trumpets over your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, and they will be a memorial for you before your God. I am the LORD your God."'

10 'With each bull there is to be a drink offering of half a hin of wine; with the ram, a third of a hin ; and with each lamb, a quarter of a hin.  This is the monthly burnt offering to be made at each new moon during the year.'

  6 'Beside the burnt offering of the month, and his meat offering, and the daily burnt offering, and his meat offering, and their drink offerings, according unto their manner, for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.'

19 'And when you look up to the sky and see the sun, the moon and the stars - all the heavenly array - do not be enticed into bowing down to them and worshiping things the LORD your God has apportioned to all the nations under heaven.'

  1 'Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.'

  4 'And there shall be no leavened bread seen with thee in all thy coast seven days; neither shall there any thing of the flesh, which thou sacrificedst the first day at even, remain all night until the morning.'

Deuteronomy 16:6

Evening = sunset

  6 'But at the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to place his name in, there thou shalt sacrifice the passover at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt.'

Conclusion:

Evening is when the sun goes down.

  3 'and contrary to my command has worshiped other gods, bowing down to them or to the sun or the moon or the stars of the sky,'

14 'And for the precious fruits brought forth by the sun, and for the precious things put forth by the moon, '

12 'Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon.'

13 'And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.'

Joshua 10:26-27

Evening = sunset

26 'And afterward Joshua smote them, and slew them, and hanged them on five trees: and they were hanging upon the trees until the evening.'

27 'And it came to pass at the time of the going down of the sun, that Joshua commanded, and they took them down off the trees, and cast them into the cave wherein they had been hid, and laid great stones in the cave's mouth, which remain until this very day.'

Conclusion:

Evening is when the sun goes down.

  5 'And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, to morrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third day at even.'  (KJV)

18 'Then Jonathan said to David, To morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty.'  (KJV)

24 'So David hid himself in the field: and when the new moon was come, the king sat him down to eat meat.'

2 Samuel 11:1

the year was expired

  1 "And it came to pass, after the year was expired, at the time when kings go forth to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah. But David tarried still at Jerusalem."  (KJV)

23 'And he said, Wherefore wilt thou go to him to day? it is neither new moon, nor sabbath. And she said, It shall be well.'

  5 'And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets, and to all the host of heaven.'

13 'Bring no more vain oblations; incense is an abomination unto me; the new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting. '

14 'Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hateth: they are a trouble unto me; I am weary to bear them.'

By keeping their civic calendar and modifying YHWH's calendar so that it became a calculated calendar rather than an observational calendar, the Hebrews began celebrating YHWH's feasts (mo'ed) and appointed times (mo'edim) on the wrong days. This meant that these events were now MAN's feasts and appointed times and NOT YHWH's. That is why they became an abomination to YHWH.

23 'And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD.'  (KJV)

This verse is referring to ALL the people of the earth.

35 'Thus saith the LORD, which giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, which divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; The LORD of hosts is his name:'

17 'And it shall be the prince's part to give burnt offerings, and meat offerings, and drink offerings, in the feasts, and in the new moons, and in the sabbaths, in all solemnities of the house of Israel: he shall prepare the sin offering, and the meat offering, and the burnt offering, and the peace offerings, to make reconciliation for the house of Israel.'

Ezekiel 46:1

new moon

  1 'Thus saith the Lord GOD; The gate of the inner court that looketh toward the east shall be shut the six working days; but on the sabbath it shall be opened, and in the day of the new moon it shall be opened.'  (KJV)

In this verse, the weekly Sabbaths are clearly distinct from the New Moon.

11 'I will also cause all her mirth to cease, her feast days, her new moons, and her sabbaths, and all her solemn feasts.'

21 'I hate, I despise your feast days, and I will not smell in your solemn assemblies.'

22 'Though ye offer me burnt offerings and your meat offerings, I will not accept them: neither will I regard the peace offerings of your fat beasts.'

23 'Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols.'

By keeping their civic calendar and modifying YHWH's calendar so that it became a calculated calendar rather than an observational calendar, the Hebrews began celebrating YHWH's feasts (mo'ed) and appointed times (mo'edim) on the wrong days. This meant that these events were now MAN's feasts and appointed times and NOT YHWH's. That is why they became an abomination to YHWH.

Amos 8:5

New Moon & Sabbath commerce restrictions

  5 'Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?'

What was the restriction on commerce during the new moon?

  3 'When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained;'

  5 'They shall fear thee as long as the sun and moon endure, throughout all generations.'

  7 'In his days shall the righteous flourish; and abundance of peace so long as the moon endureth.'

81 'Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day.'

The only solemn feast day that begins on a new moon is Yom Teruah (Day of Trumpets) Leviticus 23:23-25

The full moon that follows the new moon of Yom Teruah appears on the Sukkot (Festival of Booths)

89 'It shall be established for ever as the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven. Selah.'

19 'He appointed the moon for seasons: the sun knoweth his going down.'

  5 'Behold even to the moon, and it shineth not; yea, the stars are not pure in his sight.'

26 'If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness;'

  5 'And afterward offered the continual burnt offering, both of the new moons, and of all the set feasts of the LORD that were consecrated, and of every one that willingly offered a freewill offering unto the LORD.'

33 'For the shewbread, and for the continual meat offering, and for the continual burnt offering, of the sabbaths, of the new moons, for the set feasts, and for the holy things, and for the sin offerings to make an atonement for Israel, and for all the work of the house of our God.'

31 'And to offer all burnt sacrifices unto the LORD in the sabbaths, in the new moons, and on the set feasts, by number, according to the order commanded unto them, continually before the LORD:'

4 'Behold, I build an house to the name of the LORD my God, to dedicate it to him, and to burn before him sweet incense, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the solemn feasts of the LORD our God. This is an ordinance for ever to Israel.'

13 'Even after a certain rate every day, offering according to the commandment of Moses, on the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the solemn feasts, three times in the year, even in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles.'

  3 'He appointed also the king's portion of his substance for the burnt offerings, to wit, for the morning and evening burnt offerings, and the burnt offerings for the sabbaths, and for the new moons, and for the set feasts, as it is written in the law of the LORD.'

16 'Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days:' (KJV)

17 'Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ. (KJV)'

  4 'For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.' (KJV)

  8 'But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. ' (KJV)

Here, Peter is saying 1 day = 1 thousand years.

UNDERSTANDING AND INTERPRETING SCRIPTURE:

"Educated people of today know that the earth rotates on its axis once each 24-hour day, but we still speak of the sun rising up in the morning rather than the earth rotating to enable us to see the sun. Thus the sun does not really move fast around the earth so as to truly rise in the morning, but the expressions in our language, which have been handed down to us since ancient times have remained. The NKJV states in Eccl 1:5, "The sun also rises, and the sun goes down, And hastens to the place where it arose". Nothing is improper here by saying what appears to happen from the perspective of an observer on earth. Gen 1:14 mentions the dividing of the daytime from the night, and it says that the lights in the heavens have this purpose. We must not be critical of the Bible here on the grounds that the rotation of the earth on its axis would be explained as the cause today. Regardless of the physics, the Bible was written in terms of human perception from the surface of the earth and must be accepted this way."

[12] Egyptian Astronomical Science before Alexander the Great

"From the many ancient texts of the Egyptians we conclude that they did not apply mathematics to astronomy before the time of Alexander the Great. After that time, the city of Alexandria was founded and the leading Greek mathematicians and astronomers settled in that city of Egypt, so that it became the world's leading center of Greek astronomy. But this was not part of ancient Egyptian culture; instead, it was the transplanting of Greek science into Egypt by foreigners due to the newly constructed city of Alexandria with its modern marble streets and its grand marble museum and library. This combination museum and library with its many lecture halls became the best ancient equivalent to a modern university, and its library became the greatest one in ancient times.

The attention devoted to ancient Egypt serves the purpose of showing that ancient Israel could not have obtained knowledge of mathematical astronomy from Egypt because Egypt did not possess knowledge of mathematical astronomy."

[14] Did Ancient Israel Excel in Advanced Mathematical Astronomy?

"Scripture defines the wisdom of ancient Israel in an unconventional way in the following passage.

Deut 4:5, "Behold I have taught you statutes and ordinances as YHWH my Almighty commanded me, that you should do so in the midst of the land where you are going to possess it."

Deut 4:6, "So keep and do [them], for that [is] your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples who shall hear all these statutes. Then they shall say, surely this great people [is] a wise and understanding nation."

Deut 4:7, "For what great nation [is there] that has an Almighty [so] near to it as YHWH our Almighty in everything we call upon Him."

Deut 4:8, "And what great nation [is there] that has statutes and ordinances [as] righteous as all this law that I set before you today?"

The nations of the world think of wisdom in terms of scientific achievement and the acquiring of great knowledge, but that is not the way Moses was told to proclaim wisdom to Israel. Mathematical astronomy was not to be wisdom for them. I do not doubt that the ancient Israelites had the mental capacity to be able to develop advanced mathematics, but without the collective need for this effort by Israelite society, what would motivate such an effort? Ancient Israel could determine the calendar from observation, so they had no need for any advanced tedious calculations."

Did ancient Israel use a positional digit system with a zero, which would enable rapid multiplication and division? On page 26 of GKC2 (the latest English edition of the Hebrew grammar book by Gesenius), the numerical value of the 22 Hebrew letters is presented. This shows one letter for the value 2, another letter for the value 20, and another letter for the value 200. This illustrates the nature of the symbolic number system in ancient Hebrew, and shows that it was not a positional digit system with a zero. Page 30 has further comments on this system, which was used on coins in Judea from the Maccabean period (c. 150 BCE). The time of the origin of this system is unknown. This system would be a hindrance for general long division and is not useful for mathematical astronomy.

A good deal of effort has been put into the history of ancient astronomy in previous chapters in order to evaluate what could have been known by ancient Israel at the time of Moses and afterward. The ancient Israelites from the time of Moses in Egypt could not have borrowed mathematical astronomy from Egypt because Egypt did not possess mathematical astronomical knowledge until it was brought there by Greek astronomers more than 1000 years after Moses died. From biblical chronology I estimate that the Israelite exodus from Egypt occurred c.1480 BCE.

Although the Jews were in captivity in Babylon where the pagan priests had an advanced knowledge of both mathematics and mathematical astronomy written in the complex Akkadian language with its hundreds of symbols for words (not for numbers), there is no evidence that these Jews acquired this knowledge. Ancient Jewish writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls, from Philo, from Josephus, from archeological artifacts, and from the Mishnah (c. 200 CE), give no hint that the Jews became familiar with the Babylonian mathematical methods of computation before the time of the Greek astronomer Ptolemy (c. 150) CE who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. The Talmud does claim that Mar Samuel was able to compute a calendar for many years in advance, c. 250 CE, although none of the details are known.

Jewish scholars do not claim that the ancient Israelites had abilities in mathematical astronomy that surpassed that of their ancient neighbors. There is no historical evidence for it. On pages 555-556 of Langermann we find, "Although the sun, moon, and stars are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, that ancient and sacred text does not display any sustained exposition which can be called an astronomical text. The earliest sources for a Hebrew tradition are found in a few passages in the Talmud and Midrash [c. 200-600 CE]."

[57] The Role of the Land of Israel

"From time to time through the history of Israel in this land, the priesthood moved from place to place. The first Passover in the land was kept at Gilgal by all of Israel (Josh 5:10). Soon Shiloh became the political center (Josh 18; I Sam 1:3, 24). At first King David reigned from Hebron (II Sam 2:11), but afterward he reigned from Jerusalem (II Sam 5:5). For approximately the first 400 years of Israel's history in the land, the political headquarters was not Jerusalem, but the calendar continued regardless of the political center."

BIBLICAL START OF THE NEW YEAR:

There exist a number of ways to determine the beginning of the new year.  One method, practiced by at least the Karaite sect of Judaism, is to watch for the barley to become abib in the holy land and then begin the new year coincident with the next new moon.  Another method is to watch for the spring equinox and then begin the new year coincident with the next new moon.

 

Ripening of the barley, determining the beginning of the year.

'For those new to the wonderful world of the Biblical calendar here is brief explanation. Deuteronomy 16:1 says to "Observe the Month of the Aviv (Abib)". We know from various passages such as the Hebrew of Exodus 9:31-32 and Leviticus 2:14 that Aviv refers to ripening barley. In ancient Israel, the year would begin at the first new moon after the barley reached the stage of Aviv. In order to determine when this is, we need to examine the barley fields around Israel at the end of the 12th biblical month (Adar in the Babylonian naming system).'

 

Spring equinox, determining the beginning of the year.

I am currently investigating this method.

Genesis 8:13

new year

13 "And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry."  (KJV)

How was Noah able to determine the beginning of the year without a barley harvest?

Does this verse disprove the abib barley method for determining the beginning of the year?

31 'And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled.'  (KJV)

The Interlinear Scriptures use the Hebrew word 'abib' for 'in the ear'.

32 'But the wheat and the rie were not smitten: for they were not grown up.'  (KJV)

  3 "And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten."  (KJV)

  4 "This day came ye out in the month Abib."  (KJV)

15 "Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)"  (KJV)

18 "The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt."  (KJV)

14 'And if thou offer a meat offering of thy firstfruits unto the LORD, thou shalt offer for the meat offering of thy firstfruits green ears of corn dried by the fire, even corn beaten out of full ears.'  (KJV)

The Interlinear Scriptures use the Hebrew word ''abib' for 'green ears'.

  1 'Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.'

2 Samuel 11:1

the year was expired

  1 "And it came to pass, after the year was expired, at the time when kings go forth to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah. But David tarried still at Jerusalem."  (KJV)

REFERENCE LINKS:

APOCRAPHAL BOOKS:

ENOCH:

Book of Enoch  TRANSLATED FROM THE ETHIOPIC  by REV. GEORGE H. SCHODDE, Ph.D. PROFESSOR IN CAPITAL UNIVERSITY, COLUMBUS, OHIO.  (HTTP://WWW.HERMETICS.ORG)

The Book of Enoch With YAHWEH's Name Restored  (WWW.YAHWEHSWORD.ORG)

Contains chapters called the "Astronomical Book of Enoch"

JUBILEES:

The Book of Jubilees  (WWW.YAHWEHSWORD.ORG)

The writer of Jubilees attached a section about the calendar to the flood narrative (chapter 6)

BIBLICAL TIME:

Biblical Time And The Seventy Weeks of Daniel  (HTTP://ENDTIMEPILGRIM.ORG)  (12/02/09)

DAYS:

When Does the Biblical Day Begin?  (HTTP://CARRIEWIGAL.COM)  (06/19/12)

WEEKS:

What is the origin of the 7-day week?  (12/04/11)  (WWW.TONDERING.DK)

Creation and the Seven-Day Week?  (12/04/11)  (WWW.ICR.ORG)

Mysterious Seven Day Cycle by Ken Westby  (12/04/11)  (WWW.ICOGSFG.ORG)

God's Calendar and the Seven Day Week  (12/04/11)  (WWW.THEREFINERSFIRE.ORG)

MOONS/MONTHS:

YHWH's Moons  (WWW.THEKEYOFKNOWLDGE.NET)

YEARS:

Calculating the Beginning of the Biblical Year  (WWW.LIGHTWAY.ORG)

This article brings up some pointed questions, specifically:

1. How did Noah know when the first of the year was on the arc without a barley harvest.

2. How did the Hebrews know when the first of the year was while they were in the wilderness for 40 years (without a barley harvest)?

3. During Shmittah and Jubilee years there is no barley harvest so how did the Hebrews know the first of the year?

The rest of the teaching seems to fall apart rather rapidly after the author introduces the terms tekufah and tekufot.  I was unable to confirm his scriptural references.

The last part of the article deals primarily with issues pertinent to Seventh Day Adventists.

CALENDARS:

119 Presents Time Our Creator's Calendar 2012-2013  (HTTP://Q.B5Z.NET)  (2012/0716)

Biblical Hebrew Calendar  (HTTP://AROODAWAKENING.TV)  (2012/0716)

Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls  by James C. VanderKam, Professor, University of Notre Dame  (WWW.NELC.UCLA.EDU)

Torah Calendar  (WWW.TORAHCALENDAR.COM)  (2012/0716)

Yahweh's Calendar  (WWW.119MINISTRIES.COM)  (2012/0716)

Reassessing Qumran's Calendars  (WWW.UHL.AC)

Treatise on the Biblical Calendar, second edition (abbreviated TBC2) by Herb Solinsky  (WWW.THEBIBLICALCALENDAR.ORG)

TIMELINES:

History and Timeline of Israel and Judah  (HTTP://JEWSANDJOES.COM)  (07/24/10)