Today's Date: 

INDEX:

INTRODUCTION:

I created this page to collect information specific to the moon (or months) listed in Scripture. I am seeking to know what defines a new moon; Is moon or month the correct term, etc.

Additional information relative to the Scriptural calendar can be found at: YHWH's Calendar & Time  (WWW.THEKEYOFKNOWLEDGE.NET).

NOTES:

The average length of the synodic month is 29.530589 days.

After being hidden during the conjuction period, the new moon 'resurrects' typically on the 3rd day!

The length of the Gregorian year is equal to the time in which the earth makes one complete revolution around the sun, that being 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46.069 seconds.

"A tropical year is the average time from one vernal equinox to the next vernal equinox, or equivalently, from one autumnal equinox to the next autumnal equinox. In ordinary speech this is also called the solar year, and it approximates the agricultural year without drifting away.

Since a biblical month averages about 29.5 days, a 12-month period will contain about 354 days and a 13-month period will contain about 384 days. But a tropical year contains about 365.2422 days, which is about 11 days more than 12 biblical months."

Ancient Meaning of the Full Moon

"What did the full moon mean to the ordinary person in ancient times? We have one example of what it meant to the Jewish philosopher Philo who lived in Alexandria, Egypt and who wrote in the early first century. On page 17 of Philo_QE (section 9), in a context concerning Passover, Philo wrote, "For when it [the moon] has become full on the fourteenth (day), it becomes full of light in the perception of the people."On page 401 of Philo_7 (Special Laws 2:155), in a context concerning the seventh month, Philo wrote, "The feast begins at the middle of the month, on the fifteenth day, when the moon is full, a day purposely chosen because then there is no darkness, but everything is continuously lighted up as the sun shines from morning to evening and the moon from evening to morning and while the stars give place to each other no shadow is cast upon their brightness." We see here that Philo considers both the 14th and the 15th days of the month to be days of the full moon. Hence he does not consider the full moon to be an instant in time or only one day of the month, but a general period when the moon is quite circular. As an ordinary person he did not adopt the meaning for the full moon of advanced Greek astronomers as a mathematically predicted moment when a lunar eclipse would sometimes occur. Due to the elliptical orbit of the moon, this mathematical moment will vary by a few days in relation to the conjunction, and it will also vary by a few days in relation to the new crescent. The precision of mathematics was not Philo's approach to the meaning of the full moon."

"Although Philo, a Jew who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, is a historical first century witness that the moon is full on the 14th and 15th days of the Jewish months, this is not a biblical argument that a biblical month is full on the 14th and 15th days of the month."

"In the first century BCE Vitruvius wrote the views of the Greek astronomer and mathematician Aristarchus of Samos (c. 280 BCE) concerning the full moon. On page 264 Vitruvius (translated by Morgan) wrote, "On the fourteenth day, being diametrically across the whole extent of the firmament from the sun, she is at her full and rises when the sun is setting." This is approximately the rule given above, namely the first evening in which the moon rises in the east after the sun sets in the west begins the day after the moment of the full moon. However, Philo of Alexandria took a looser concept of the full moon allowing both the 14th and 15th days of the month to be days of the full moon."

Calculating the days of the theoretical on which a new moon occured during the 1st or 7th months of the MCJC (Modern Calculated Jewish Calendar)

"Appendix F was made possible through the efforts of Rob Anderson. In 1982 he wrote an additional program based on the first one that determined the biblical day in which the moment of the astronomical full moon occurred. Using the 100 years from 1900 through 1999 and using the first and seventh months in those years as determined by the MCJC (Modern Calculated Jewish Calendar), he thereby selected 200 full moons. His computer program determined the days of the theoretical biblical month on which the full moon occurred. Here are the results for the 200 months."

Theoretical biblical day 12 of the month: 1 full moon.

Theoretical biblical day 13 of the month: 44 full moons.

Theoretical biblical day 14 of the month: 94 full moons.

Theoretical biblical day 15 of the month: 60 full moons.

Theoretical biblical day 16 of the month: 1 full moon.

SCRIPTURE REFERENCES (NAMES & NUMBERS):

1st Month

Abib - (Exodus 3:4, Exodus 23:15), Nisan - (Esther 3:7)

Exodus 12:2

(first month)

  2 'This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. '  (KJV)

      01/##/##    The 1st month of the year

This is YHWH speaking.

This is said right before the description of Passover.

The significant difference is that the word 'IS' has been replaced by the words 'SHALL BE' implying that this is a new calendar.  By using the word 'IS', YHWH was simply resyncing the Hebrews to HIS original calendar that they had lost while captive in Egypt.  People practicing Judaism believe this was a new calendar and that they were allowed to keep their old Egyptian calendar as a civic calendar for selling, buying and other ordinary affairs.

15 'Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)'  (KJV)

Esther 3:7

(Nisan)

  7 'In the first month, that is, the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that is, the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, to the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar.'  (KJV)

3rd Month

Sivan

Esther 8:9

(Sivan)

  9 'Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that is, the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.'  (KJV)

6th Month

Elul

15 'So the wall was finished in the twenty and fifth day of the month Elul, in fifty and two days.'  (KJV)

9th Month

Chislev/Kislev/Kislĕw/Kislĕv - (Zechariah 7:1, Nehemiah 1:1)

Zechariah 7:1

(Chisleu)

  1 "And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Darius, that the word of the LORD came unto Zechariah in the fourth day of the ninth month, even in Chisleu;"  (KJV)

The pagan name for the 9th month, Kislĕw is also called (Kislĕv)

Darius/Dareyawesh - possessing the good

LORD/YHWH

Zechariah/Zekaryah - YHWH remembers

Chisleu/Kislsw - ninth month of the Hebrew year

Nehemiah 1:1

(Chisleu)

  1 'The words of Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah. And it came to pass in the month Chisleu, in the twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the palace,'  (KJV)

10th Month

Tebeth - (Esther 3:7)

Esther 2:16

(Tebeth)

16 'So Esther was taken unto king Ahasuerus into his house royal in the tenth month, which is the month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign.'  (KJV)

12th Month

Adar - (Esther 3:7), Adar - (Esther 3:13), Adar - (Esther 9:1)

  7 'In the first month, that is, the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that is, the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, to the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar.'  (KJV)

13 'And the letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.'  (KJV)

12 'Upon one day in all the provinces of king Ahasuerus, namely, upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar.'  (KJV)

  1 'Now in the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same, when the king's commandment and his decree drew near to be put in execution, in the day that the enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them, (though it was turned to the contrary, that the Jews had rule over them that hated them;)'  (KJV)

15 'For the Jews that were in Shushan gathered themselves together on the fourteenth day also of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men at Shushan; but on the prey they laid not their hand.'  (KJV)

17 'On the thirteenth day of the month Adar; and on the fourteenth day of the same rested they, and made it a day of feasting and gladness.'  (KJV)

19 'Therefore the Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of the month Adar a day of gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another.'  (KJV)

21 'To stablish this among them, that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same, yearly,'  (KJV)

Ezra 6:15

(Adar)

15 'And this house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king.'  (KJV)

SCRIPTURE REFERENCES (MONTHS, MOONS & THE MOON):

Genesis 29:14

month
[2320]

14 "And Laban said to him, Surely thou art my bone and my flesh. And he abode with him the space of a month."  (KJV)

months/moons/new moons - (H 2320) - from 'chadash' (2318); the new moon; by implication, a month:--month(-ly), new moon.; (2318) - a primitive root; to be new; causatively, to rebuild:--renew, repair.

Numbers 10:10-11

month(s)
[2320]
[2320]

10 "Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God."  (KJV)

11 "And it came to pass on the twentieth day of the second month, in the second year, that the cloud was taken up from off the tabernacle of the testimony."  (KJV)

Translation Difference

"10 "And in the day of your gladness, and in your appointed times, and at the beginning of your months, you shall blow the trumpets over your burnt offerings and over your peace offerings. And they shall be a remembrance for you before your Elohim. I am YHWH your Elohim.""  (The ISR Scriptures)

"11 And it came to be on the twentieth day of the second month, in the second year, that the cloud was taken up from above the Dwelling Place of the Witness."  (The ISR Scriptures)

months/moons/new moons - (H 2320) - from 'chadash' (2318); the new moon; by implication, a month:--month(-ly), new moon.; (2318) - a primitive root; to be new; causatively, to rebuild:--renew, repair.

1 Samuel 20:5

new moon
[2320]

  5 "And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, to morrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third day at even."  (KJV)

1 Kings 5:14

month(s)
[2320]
[2320]

14 "And he sent them to Lebanon, ten thousand a month by courses: a month they were in Lebanon, and two months at home: and Adoniram was over the levy."  (KJV)

months/moons/new moons - (H 2320) - from 'chadash' (2318); the new moon; by implication, a month:--month(-ly), new moon.; (2318) - a primitive root; to be new; causatively, to rebuild:--renew, repair.

2 Kings 4:23

new moon
[2320]

23 "And he said, Wherefore wilt thou go to him to day? it is neither new moon, nor sabbath. And she said, It shall be well."  (KJV)

months/moons/new moons - (H 2320) - from 'chadash' (2318); the new moon; by implication, a month:--month(-ly), new moon.; (2318) - a primitive root; to be new; causatively, to rebuild:--renew, repair.

1 Chronicles 23:30-31

new moons
[2320]

30 "And to stand every morning to thank and praise the LORD, and likewise at even:"  (KJV)

30 "And to offer all burnt sacrifices unto the LORD in the sabbaths, in the new moons, and on the set feasts, by number, according to the order commanded unto them, continually before the LORD:"  (KJV)

Translation Difference

"30 and to stand every morning to thank and praise YHWH, and so at evening;"  (The ISR Scriptures)

"31 and for all the burnt offerings to YHWH on the Sabbaths and on the New Moons and on the appointed times, by number according to the right-ruling upon them, continually before YHWH;"  (The ISR Scriptures)

months/moons/new moons - (H 2320) - from 'chadash' (2318); the new moon; by implication, a month:--month(-ly), new moon.; (2318) - a primitive root; to be new; causatively, to rebuild:--renew, repair.

feast/mo'ed - an appointment; (4150) - or moled {mo-ade'}; or (feminine) moweadah (2 Chronicles 8:13) {mo-aw-daw'}; from 'ya`ad' (3259); properly, an appointment, i.e. a fixed time or season; specifically, a festival; conventionally a year; by implication, an assembly (as convened for a definite purpose); technically the congregation; by extension, the place of meeting; also a signal (as appointed beforehand):--appointed (sign, time), (place of, solemn) assembly, congregation, (set, solemn) feast, (appointed, due) season, solemn(-ity), synogogue, (set) time (appointed).; (3259) - a primitive root; to fix upon (by agreement or appointment); by implication, to meet (at a stated time), to summon (to trial), to direct (in a certain quarter or position), to engage (for marriage): -agree,(maxke an) appoint(-ment,a time), assemble (selves), betroth, gather (selves, together), meet (together), set (a time).

2 Chronicles 2:4

new moons
[2320]

  4 "Behold, I build an house to the name of the LORD my God, to dedicate it to him, and to burn before him sweet incense, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the solemn feasts of the LORD our God. This is an ordinance for ever to Israel."  (KJV)

Ezekiel 46:3

new moons
[2320]

  3 "Likewise the people of the land shall worship at the door of this gate before the LORD in the sabbaths and in the new moons."  (KJV)

months/moons/new moons - (H 2320) - from 'chadash' (2318); the new moon; by implication, a month:--month(-ly), new moon.; (2318) - a primitive root; to be new; causatively, to rebuild:--renew, repair.

Hosea 2:11

new moons
[2320]

11 "I will also cause all her mirth to cease, her feast days, her new moons, and her sabbaths, and all her solemn feasts."  (KJV)

months/moons/new moons - (H 2320) - from 'chadash' (2318); the new moon; by implication, a month:--month(-ly), new moon.; (2318) - a primitive root; to be new; causatively, to rebuild:--renew, repair.

Amos 8:5

new moon
[2320]

  5 "Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?"  (KJV)

months/moons/new moons - (H 2320) - from 'chadash' (2318); the new moon; by implication, a month:--month(-ly), new moon.; (2318) - a primitive root; to be new; causatively, to rebuild:--renew, repair.

Psalm 81:3

new moon
[2320]

  3 "Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day."  (KJV)

Translation Difference

"Blow the ram’s horn at the time of the New Moon, At the full moon, on our festival day."  (The ISR Scriptures)

"Blow the shofar in the month, at the full moon for the day of our chag. 3741"  (The ISR Scriptures)

3741 - There are several reasons that the word keseh must mean full and not concealed moon. First is the fact that the shofar is blown in the month of the exodus, (not on the New Moon/Rosh Chodesh as many have mistranslated, for ba-chodesh means in the month, not necessarily new month, or new moon) from Egypt according to Psalm 81 verse 5. The blowing is correlated to Yisrael leaving Egypt, which we know took place on the 15th, or the full moon in the month of Aviv. Moreover, and perhaps more compelling is that the word "chag" is the root word of chaganu, or "our chag," which only applies to Unleavened Bread, Feast of Weeks, or Tabernacles. Yom Teruah, or the Feast of Trumpets, is never called a chag. Also in Psalm 81 verse 5 it states that this event is a testimony to Joseph that he will again be delivered from the nations, as he once was delivered in the historical Egyptian redemption. The testimony of deliverance dates back to the full moon of Aviv 15 and not the dark moon of Trumpets. For Joseph and rest of his brethren were not delivered at Trumpets, but at Chag Matzoth/Unleavened Bread under the cover of a bright full moon. Also, Yisrael is never commanded to blow the shofar on a Rosh Chodesh, or Feast of Trumpets, as amazing as that may sound, but is ordered to blow the twin silver trumpets (chatsrot) at that time (Numbers 10:10). The fact that the word used in verse 3 is shofar and not chatsrot, is further proof that shofar blowing did take place on Aviv 15, but never on the Feast of Trumpets in ancient times. The Feast of Teruah/Trumpets had the requirement of sounding trumpets not shofars, as seen in Leviticus 23:24 and Numbers 29:1. The word shofar does not appear in those verses, as it does in verse 3 of this Psalm. Finally in Psalm 81 verse 4, we see that the full moon exodus recorded as a judgment upon Egypt, stands as a reminder forever to all Yisrael in the Torah. When considering key verses, such as Psalm 81 verses 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, all referring to the historical Egyptian exodus under a full moon (Aviv 15), there can be little doubt left that keseh in verse 3, must also fit that same full moon exodus context.

"Blow the ram's horn in the new moon, at the full moon, on our feast day."  (Hebraic Roots Bible)

"Blow the trumpet in the Chodesh, at the full moon, on the day of our feast."
"tiq’'u baChodesh shophar bakeseh l’yom chagenu."  (Interlinear Psalms)

appointed/keh'-seh - (H 3677) - or keceh {keh'-seh}; apparently from 'kacah' (3680); properly, fulness or the full moon, i.e. its festival:--(time) appointed.

(F) Can keseh in Ps 81:3 be the verb kasah (3680)?

Thus keseh in Ps 81:3 cannot be the verb kasah (3680).

Psalm 104:19

the moon
[3394]

19 "He appointed the moon for seasons: the sun knoweth his going down."  (KJV)

The Moon/yahrayach - (H 3394) - from the same as 'yerach' (3391); the moon:--moon. Yrechow. See 'Yriychow' (3405).; (H 3391) - from a unused root of uncertain signification; a lunation, i.e. month:--month, moon.; (H 3405) - or Yrechow {yer-ay-kho'}; or variation (1 Kings 16:34) Yriychoh {yer-ee-kho'}; perhaps from 'yareach' (3394); its month; or else from 'ruwach' (7306); fragrant; Jericho or Jerecho, a place in Palestine:--Jericho.

DETERMINING THE START OF THE DAY:

Nehemiah 13:19

Start of day

19 'And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath day.'  (KJV)

DETERMINING THE START OF THE MONTH:

"Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day."  (KJV)

Translation Difference

'Blow the ram's horn at the time of the New Moon, At the full moon, on our festival day.'  (The Besorah Of Yahusha)

'Blow the ram's horn at the time of the New Moon, At the full moon, on our festival day.'  (The ISR Scriptures)

'Blow the shofar in the month, at the full moon for the day of our chag.  (The Restoration Scriptures)

"Blow the trumpet in the Chodesh, at the full moon, on the day of our feast."  (Interlinear Psalms)

the Chodesh/baChodesh - (H 2320) - from 'chadash' (2318); the new moon; by implication, a month:--month(-ly), new moon.; (H 2318) - a primitive root; to be new; causatively, to rebuild:--renew, repair.

the full moon/bakeseh - (H 3677) - or keceh {keh'-seh}; apparently from 'kacah' (3680); properly, fulness or the full moon, i.e. its festival:--(time) appointed.; (H 3680) - a primitive root; properly, to plump, i.e. fill up hollows; by implication, to cover (for clothing or secrecy):--clad self, close, clothe, conceal, cover (self), (flee to) hide, overwhelm. Compare 'kasah' (3780).

our feast/chagenu -

The only solemn feast day that begins on a new moon is Yom Teruah (Day of Trumpets) Leviticus 23:23-25

The full moon that follows the new moon of Yom Teruah appears on the Sukkot (Festival of Booths)

DETERMINING THE LENGTH OF A MONTH:

11 "In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened."  (KJV)

600 02/17

This is the beginning of a time marker for determining the number of days in a month.  The end of this marker is Genesis 8:3-4.

  3 "And the waters returned from off the earth continually: and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated."  (KJV)

  4 "And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat."  (KJV)

These two verses are the end of a time marker that began with Genesis 7:11.  150 days divided by 5 Months = 30 days per month.  It would appear that, in the days of Noah, months were thirty (30) days long.

REFERENCE LINKS:

YHWH's Calendar & Time  (WWW.THEKEYOFKNOWLEDGE.NET)

NASA Eclipse Web Site  (HTTP://ECLIPSE.GSFC.NASA.GOV)  (11/01/6009)

Lunar Calendar  (HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG)  (09/19/11)

HASTRO-L The History of Astronomy Discussion Group  (WWW.ASTRO.UNI-BONN.DE)

MOONCONNECTION.com  (WWW.MOONCONNECTION.COM)

Understanding The Moon Phases  (WWW.MOONCONNECTION.COM)

Current Moon Phase  (WWW.MOONCONNECTION.COM)

 

Aviv Barley for Beginners  (WWW.UNLEAVENEDBREAD.CO.ZA)  (09/04/10)

The Abib Biblical Lunar Calendar (ABLC)  (WWW.TRUEBIBLECODE.COM)  (11/01/6009)

What is a Biblical New Moon  (WWW.YRM.ORG)  (10/06/09)

Hebrew Calendar  (HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG)  (11/01/6009)

Biblical Lunar Calendar  (WWW.YAHUWEH.COM)  (11/01/6009)

Head of the Year/Months  (HTTP://HOME.COMCAST.NET)  (04/15/11)

Hebrew Day and Month Names  (WWW.YASHANET.CO9M)  (08/29/11)

THE 13TH MOON/MONTH:

What the scriptures say about the Jewish CALENDAR, MONTH  (WWW.BIBLEREFERENCEGUIDE.COM)

Biblical Calendar Basics  (WWW.SERVANTSNEWS.COM)

Why There Can Never be a 13th Month in Scripture  (WWW.YOURARMSTOISRAELGLOBAL.COM)

The 13th Month In Scripture  (HTTP://KINGDOMINFO.NET)

LUNAR ECLIPSES:

NEW MOON SIGHTINGS:

NEW MOON REPORT  (2012/0916)

The Israeli New Moon Society  (2012/0916)

TorahCalendar.com  (2012/0916)

New Moon Report  (2012/0916)

When Is The New Moon  (2012/0916)